By winning wars and expanding territories, he established Prussia as a strong military power. As Lepidus and Octavian accepted the surrender of Pompeius's troops, Lepidus attempted to claim Sicily for himself, ordering Octavian to leave. [168] All the accused were sentenced to death for treason and executed as soon as they were captured—without ever giving testimony in their defence. [84], While in Egypt, Antony had been engaged in an affair with Cleopatra and had fathered three children with her. Augustus dramatically enlarged the Empire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia, expanding possessions in Africa, and completing the conquest of Hispania, but suffered a major setback in Germania. But once he had established his authority, he governed efficiently and justly, generally allowed freedom of speech, and promoted the rule of law. Raaflaub, Kurt A. and Toher, Mark (eds.). Deposed his grandfather Andronikos II in 1328 and reigned as sole emperor, 16 February 1391 (aged 58), Constantinople, Maternal relative of the Palaiologi, declared co-emperor by John V in 1341 and recognized as senior emperor in 1347 following a civil war. [136] He appointed noted Republican Calpurnius Piso (who had fought against Julius Caesar and supported Cassius and Brutus[137]) as co-consul in 23 BC, after his choice Aulus Terentius Varro Murena died unexpectedly. However, he combined an overriding concern for his personal interests with a deep-seated patriotism, based on a nostalgia of Rome's antique virtues. 1059, confined to a monastery after having been deposed by successor. Adoptive brother and co-emperor of, Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until his death, 15 December 130 – 23 January 169 (aged 38), 31 August 161 – 31 December 192 (aged 31), Proclaimed emperor after the murder of Commodus, Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor. However, modern scholarship has confirmed that Romulus Augustulus' predecessor, Julius Nepos continued to rule as emperor in the other Western holdings and as a figurehead for Odoacer's rule in Italy until Nepos' death in 480. Michael's son Constantine was also raised to co-emperor in 1074. He became the Western emperor in 312 and the sole Roman emperor in 324. Caligula "Little Boots" Known as "Caligula" ('Little Boots'), Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus was … That came later, as did the jealously guarded tribunicia potestas. Flavius Valerius Constantinus, who would become Roman emperor Constantine I, was born on February 27, circa 280 (sources range from 272 to 284), in Naissus, Moesia (now Niš, Serbia). [52][53] Octavian meanwhile built up a private army in Italy by recruiting Caesarian veterans and, on 28 November, he won over two of Antony's legions with the enticing offer of monetary gain. Constantine died on May 22, 337, in Ancyrona, near Nicomedia, Bithynia (modern-day Izmit, Turkey), at the approximate age of 57. [74] Plutarch described the proscriptions as a ruthless and cutthroat swapping of friends and family among Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian. [117], On 16 January 27 BC the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps. Almost the entire fourth chapter in his publicly released memoirs of achievements known as the Res Gestae was devoted to his military victories and honors. During a period of civil war, Constantine defended his position against different Roman factions, including Maxentius, Maximian's son. [23] Velleius Paterculus reports that after that time, Caesar allowed the young man to share his carriage. Son and heir of Septimius Severus, ruled jointly with his brother, Son and heir of Septimius Severus, ruled jointly with his brother, Caracalla, Son of Macrinus, named emperor by his father after the eruption of a rebellion in favor of, Cousin and alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla, grandnephew of Septimius Severus, proclaimed emperor by the army, in opposition to Macrinus, 203 or 204 – 11 March 222 (aged around 18), Cousin and adopted heir of Elagabalus, grandnephew of Septimius Severus, proclaimed emperor by the troops, Proclaimed emperor by Germanic legions after the murder of Severus Alexander, Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of his son, Gordian II, Proclaimed emperor alongside father Gordian I, during revolt in Africa against Maximinus, Tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard, Proclaimed emperor jointly with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus, Grandson of Gordian I, appointed as heir by Pupienus and Balbinus, upon whose deaths he succeeded as emperor, 20 January 225 – c. February 244 (aged 19), Son of Philip the Arab, named co-emperor in 247, Son and heir of Decius, accepted as emperor by, Probably died of the plague, possibly killed by Trebonianus Gallus, Proclaimed emperor by the army after Decius's death, Son of Trebonianus Gallus, appointed joint emperor, September 253 – c. September 268 (15 years), Brother of Claudius Gothicus, proclaimed emperor after his death, Committed suicide or killed at the behest of Aurelian, Supreme commander of the Roman cavalry, proclaimed emperor by Danube legions after Claudius's death, in opposition to Quintillus, 9 September 214 – c. October 275 (aged 61), Died of an illness or killed by his own troops, Likely half-brother of Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by the troops after Tacitus's death, Murdered by his own troops, in favour of Probus, Proclaimed emperor by eastern legions, in opposition to, 19 August 232 – c. September 282 (aged 50), Praetorian prefect to Probus, seized power before or after Probus's murder, Eldest son of Carus, who appointed him joint emperor, Probably died in battle against Diocletian, likely betrayed by his men, Younger son and heir of Carus, reigned jointly with his older brother, Carinus, Died during army march to Europe, probably of disease, possibly assassinated, Proclaimed emperor by army after death of, 22 December 244 – 3 December 311 (aged 66), 1 April 286 – 1 May 305; Late 306 - 11 November 308, Son of Constantius I, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops.

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