[132] On the one hand, this increased labour cost is one factor that makes organic food more expensive. The first commercial process for fertilizer production was the obtaining of phosphate from the dissolution of coprolites in sulphuric acid. [59]:26 These pesticides are not always more safe or environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides and can cause harm. [155][156], Researchers at Oxford University analysed 71 peer-reviewed studies and observed that organic products are sometimes worse for the environment. [111], A long-term field study comparing organic/conventional agriculture carried out over 21 years in Switzerland concluded that "Crop yields of the organic systems averaged over 21 experimental years at 80% of the conventional ones. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. [43] Crop rotation and green manure ("cover crops") help to provide nitrogen through legumes (more precisely, the family Fabaceae), which fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria. Mowing and cutting - Removing top growth of weeds; Flame weeding and thermal weeding - Using heat to kill weeds; and, encouraging predatory beneficial insects to control pests by serving them nursery plants and/or an alternative habitat, usually in a form of a. using row covers to protect crops during pest migration periods; Many organic farms have sprouted, growing produce ranging from mangosteen to stinky bean, Some of the farms have also established education centres to promote and share their organic farming techniques and knowledge, In Chiang Mai Province, there are 18 organic markets (ISAC-linked). The results show considerable variation across the case studies, suggesting that there is no clear structure to the costs of adopting OA. In 2005 IFOAM created the Principles of Organic Agriculture, an international guideline for certification criteria. Similar advances occurred in chemical pesticides in the 1940s, leading to the decade being referred to as the 'pesticide era'. The numbers were highest for bread wheat (200+ % more) and potatoes (160% more). [65] Archeological evidence of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilization. Balk, Sabine; Dembowski, Hans; Thallam, Vijay Kumar. [208], The Chinese government, especially the local government, has provided various supports for the development of organic agriculture since the 1990s. However, there is little social science research or consensus as to whether or not organic agriculture provides better working conditions than conventional agriculture. [104] These differences among findings can often be attributed to variations between study designs including differences in the crops studied and the methodology by which results were gathered. This migration event also saw the introduction of cultivated and domesticated food plants from Taiwan, Island Southeast Asia, and New Guinea into the Pacific Islands as canoe plants. Organic farming relies heavily on the natural breakdown of organic matter, using techniques like green manure and composting, to replace nutrients taken from the soil by previous crops. But the organic label goes further and usually prohibit compounds that exist in nature if they are produced by chemical synthesis. Some farms may not use the word at all, hence vineyard (grapes), orchard (nuts and other fruit), market garden or "truck farm" (vegetables and flowers). [41] Planting a variety of vegetable crops supports a wider range of beneficial insects, soil microorganisms, and other factors that add up to overall farm health. [131] The main problem in sustaining agriculture in one place for a long time was the depletion of nutrients, most importantly nitrogen levels, in the soil. Before the adoption of the potato as a major crop, the dependence on grain had caused repetitive regional and national famines when the crops failed, including 17 major famines in England between 1523 and 1623. "The End of Food: Investigating a Global Crisis." A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production. Fertilizer, in the shape of sodium nitrate deposits in Chile, was imported to Britain by John Thomas North as well as guano (birds droppings). Although illnesses from synthetic inputs pose less of a risk, hired workers still fall victim to debilitating musculoskeletal disorders associated with agricultural work. Further, global yield increases were experienced later in the 20th century when high-yield varieties of common staple grains such as rice, wheat, and corn were introduced as a part of the Green Revolution. Specialist farms are often denoted as such, thus a dairy farm, fish farm, poultry farm or mink farm. Modern units tend to specialise in the crops or livestock best suited to the region, with their finished products being sold for the retail market or for further processing, with farm products being traded around the world. Organic Crops or Energy Crops? [127], In the 2012 Census, direct-to-consumer sales equalled $1.3 billion, up from $812 million in 2002, an increase of 60 percent. The word in the sense of an agricultural land-holding derives from the verb "to farm" a revenue source, whether taxes, customs, rents of a group of manors or simply to hold an individual manor by the feudal land tenure of "fee farm". [70], Some naturally derived pesticides are not allowed for use on organic farms. - IS0205, "Organic farms not necessarily better for environment", Does organic farming reduce environmental impacts? This has usually been accompanied by the decoupling of political power from farm ownership. The profitability of organic agriculture can be attributed to a number of factors. It includes ranches, feedlots, orchards, plantations and estates, smallholdings and hobby farms, and includes the farmhouse and agricultural b… In the United States, livestock may be raised on rangeland and finished in feedlots and the mechanization of crop production has brought about a great decrease in the number of agricultural workers needed. CAN/CGSB-32.311-2006. Rice cultivation then spread to South and Southeast Asia. [87], In the US, the Organic Food Production Act of 1990 (OFPA,) as amended, specifies that a farm can not be certified as organic if the compost being used contains any synthetic ingredients. Dairy farms generally sell male calves for veal meat, as dairy breeds are not normally satisfactory for commercial beef production. [117] Improved horse harnesses and the whippletree further improved cultivation. [35][36] The horse was domesticated in the Pontic steppe around 4000 BC. India has 835,000 certified organic producers. "USDSA Guidance Natural Resources and Biodiversity Conservation"(PDF). Canadian General Standards Board. [208] As many consumers equate organic and sustainable agriculture with small-scale, family-owned organizations it is widely interpreted that buying organic supports better conditions for farmworkers than buying with conventional producers. [86] To combat this risk, USDA organic standards require that manure must be sterilized through high temperature thermophilic composting. [117] Data from 22 years of experiments at the Rodale Institute found that, based on the current yields and production costs associated with organic farming in the United States, a price premium of only 10% is required to achieve parity with conventional farming. 2008. p. 81. Biodynamic agriculturists, on the other hand, used the term "organic" to indicate that a farm should be viewed as a living organism,[25]:17–19[31] in the sense of the following quotation: "An organic farm, properly speaking, is not one that uses certain methods and substances and avoids others; it is a farm whose structure is formed in imitation of the structure of a natural system that has the integrity, the independence and the benign dependence of an organism". Nepal is an agricultural country and about 80% of the total population are engaged in farming. [193] No-till farming, which some claim depends upon pesticides, is one way to minimize erosion. A study published in 2005 compared conventional cropping, organic animal-based cropping, and organic legume-based cropping on a test farm at the Rodale Institute over 22 years. [217] The Dominican Republic accounts for 55% of the world's certified organic bananas. [63][64] Although pyrethrum (natural pyrethrins) is more effective against insects when used with piperonyl butoxide (which retards degradation of the pyrethrins),[65] organic standards generally do not permit use of the latter substance.


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