There is generally no external evidence that the larvae have been eating until when the adult weevil chews through the seed coat and emerges. In a U.S. study, a combination of controlled ambient aeration in the autumn and chilled aeration during summer storage was found to have significant potential as a nonchemical preventive pest management technique (Maier et al 1996). D.S. Exceptions are a chapter on the rice weevil in a book by Wellhouse (1926), a chapter entitled “Insects infesting mills, store-rooms and houses” in book byDoane (1931), the chapter by Wilbur and Mills (1985) in the economic entomology book by Pfadt, and a chapter including stored-product insects in a book by Metcalf and Metcalf (1993). They mostly attack the upper 50cm layer of the stored grains. endobj During large infestations, heat and moisture are produced, leading to colonisation by moulds and mites. However, fumigation does not control external pests or provide residual protection (McFarlane, 1989). Among different methods (acoustic method, near infrared spectroscopy and imaging, thermal imaging, and visible light imaging) used to detect insect infestations in grain, the soft x-ray method is considered as the simple and fast method to detect hidden insects in grain(Keagy and Schatzki, 1991, 1993; Schatzki et al., 1993; Karunakaran et al., 2004b, 2005; Neethirajan et al., 2007). Phenolic compounds have been associated with grain resistance to S. zeamais (Arnason et al 1992). Pasquale Trematerra, James Throne, in Durum Wheat (Second Edition), 2012. According to De Carmago Casella et al (1998), effective control of Sitophilus was achieved with a synthetic atmosphere and 0.5 or 0.75 g of phosphine per cubic meter, for an exposure period of 120 h. Good storage hygiene plays an important role in limiting infestation by S. zeamais. 1982. S. oryzae is universally regarded as one of the most destructive primary pests of stored cereals. progeny, Per cent grain damage, Per cent weight loss, Sitophilus oryzae L, Split pulses. Adults feed upon whole seeds or flour but the larvae feeds only upon seeds or cereal products. /Filter /FlateDecode Grains should be dried in sunlight and stored in clean insect proof and dry granaries. Sitophilus spp. The source of diatomaceous earth, insect species, grain moisture content, temperature, method of application, and duration of exposure are all factors that influence the mortality of stored-product insects. The infestations by C. ferrugineus pupae and adults were identified with more than 96% accuracy, and 97% of kernels infested by P. interpunctella larvae were identified by both the linear-function parametric classifier and BPNN. Sitophilus oryzae also infests stored pulses. Due to many droppings of rice weevils the products can be stale and of bad quality. <>/Font<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 1/Type/Page>> Infestations by grain weevils and Angoumois grain moth are the most reported with infestation usually commencing in the field (McFarlane, 1989; Beta et al., 2016). Several plant extracts have been tested for activity against Sitophilus spp. The adult rice weevil lives at a temperature of 28 º C for about 3 months, and at 20 º C they live 5-7 months. Adobe PDF Library 10.0; modified using iTextSharp 5.1.3 (c) 1T3XT BVBARice weevil infestation,Sitophilus oryzae, Imported rice, Parboiled rice, Stored grain pests %���� Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae Habitat: Rice weevils are usually found in grain storage facilities or processing plants, infesting wheat, oats, rye, barley, rice, and corn.Although not often found in the home, they are sometimes found infesting beans, birdseed, sunflower seeds, dried corn, and too a lesser degree macaroni and spaghetti. Varieties with soft endosperm are more susceptible. The average lifespan of a weevil is about 5–6 months (McFarlane, 1989; Beta et al., 2016). << Order-Coleoptera. Grubs are found to be the only infective stage for the stored grains. 328). Three species, the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), the rice weevil S. oryzae (L.) and the maize weevil, S. zeamais Motschulsky, rank among the most serious pests of cereal grains in the world. The maize weevil is very similar to the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (see Fact Sheet no. Eggs hatches into larvae after 7 to 14 days of incubation. Sitophilus oryzae (Rice weevil) Class-Insecta. Heat treatment of grains such as smoking them over an open fire can destroy pests almost immediately (McFarlane, 1989), although such practices may introduce smoke flavor to the kernels depending on the length of treatment. Guidelines for Pest Management Research to Reduce Stored Food Losses Caused by Insects and Mites. pasta. Available at: http://gala.gre.ac.uk/10727/1/Doc-0115.pdf; Beta, T., Chisi, M., Monyo, E.S., 2016. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Beauveria bassiana can be an effective microbial control agent if used as a preventive treatment (Adane et al 1996). Specie-oryzae. 3 0 obj The activity is recorded after 24 h of treatment with a continuous supply of fresh leaves for healthy growth. /Width 75 An adult female weevil bores a hole in the grain and lays an egg inside the kernel (McFarlane, 1989; Beta et al., 2016). They have been observed to cause 30 % damage to the grains but sometimes they destroy the grain completely. /BitsPerComponent 8 They will not feed on furniture, the house structure or other items. Thus, in order of decreasing attraction are: the germ part, the kernel endosperm without the germ, the kernel pericarp layers, the whole kernel without the chaff, the whole kernel with the chaff, and lastly the chaff. The major damage to grains is done by larvae. Kernels infested by different stages of S. oryzae and R. dominica larvae were identified with more than 98% accuracy by the linear-function parametric classifier and BPNN. Fumigation by carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide before and after the storage. Similar species: Sitophilus granaries and Sitophilus zeamais. /Filter /FlateDecode 2014-01-20T09:31:33+08:00Scientific & Academic Publishing2014-01-20T13:38:15+08:00 Studies on the nature and extent of damage to stored rice caused by rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (Linn.) Guidelines for Pest Management Research to Reduce Stored Food Losses Caused by Insects and Mites.

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