An example of a dependent variable is depression symptoms, which depends on the independent variable (type of therapy). The dependent variable is the variable that is measured by the experimenter. Independent variables also have different levels. 18 Psychology Research Terms You Need to Know, Why the Dependent Variable Is So Important to Valid Experiments. For example, if we are concerned with the effect of media violence on aggression, then we need to be very clear what we mean by the different terms. As you are learning to identify the dependent variables in an experiment, it can be helpful to look at examples. Select independent variables that you think will cause changes in another variable. In such an experiment, an attempt is made to find evidence that the values of the independent variable determine the values of the dependent variable (that which is being measured). In the most basic sense, you need two variables because as a researcher, you want to be able to examine if something (a drug, a therapy, a teaching technique, whatever) has an effect on some participant (person, people, animals, etc.). Therefore, you could state that “media violence” is operationally defined (in your experiment) as ‘exposure to a 15 minute film showing scenes of physical assault’; “aggression” is operationally defined as ‘levels of electrical shocks administered to a second ‘participant’ in another room’. An independent variable (IV) is a variable that is manipulated by a researcher to investigate whether it consequently brings change in another variable. The dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured in an experiment, and is 'dependent' on the independent variable. Is the variable one that is being manipulated by the experimenters? In a psychology experiment: 1  The independent variable is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter. In an experiment, one group of students attends an after-school tutoring session twice a week while another group of students does not receive this additional assistance. they were studied and measured in our experiment. Researchers want to determine if a new type of treatment will lead to a reduction in anxiety for patients living with social phobia. Identifying the Independent Variable. Two other kinds of variables that might influence the outcome include: Extraneous variables can also include demand characteristics (which are clues about how the participants should respond) and experimenter effects (which is when the researchers accidentally provide clues about how a participant will respond). I.V._____________________________________________________________, D.V. 4. Thus wages are dependent on time worked. var idcomments_acct = '911e7834fec70b58e57f0a4156665d56'; Operationalization has the great advantage that it generally provides a clear and objective definition of even complex variables. A researcher is interested in studying how the amount of time spent studying influences test scores. In this example, the color of the office is the independent variable. _________________________________________________________, D.V. Thank you, {{}}, for signing up. In the design of experiments, independent variables are those whose values are controlled or selected by the experimenter to determine its relationship to an observedphenomenon (the dependent variable). For, even though any function defines a bilateral relation between variables, and it's even true that two variables might be connected by an implicit equation (for instance, cf. For example, in an experiment looking at the effects of studying on test scores, studying would be the independent variable. The dependent variable is the variable being tested and measured in an experiment, and is 'dependent' on the independent variable. supports HTML5 video. How Are Double-Blind Studies Used In Psychology? It is called independent because its value does not depend on and is not affected by the state of any other variable in the experiment. The independent variable is the variable the experimenter changes or controls and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. var idcomments_post_url; //GOOGLE SEARCH In other cases, multiple levels of the IV may be used to look at the range of effects that the variable may have. function Gsitesearch(curobj){ curobj.q.value="site:"+domainroot+" "+curobj.qfront.value }. eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'simplypsychology_org-medrectangle-1','ezslot_8',199,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-box-1','ezslot_5',197,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-billboard-2','ezslot_4',618,'0','0']));report this ad, eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'simplypsychology_org-large-leaderboard-1','ezslot_3',152,'0','0']));report this ad, What are Independent and Dependent Variables? What are independent and dependent variables. In a study of how different dosages of a drug are related to the severity of symptoms of a disease, a researcher could compare the varying symptoms (the dependent variable) for varying dosages (the independent variable) and attempt to draw a conclusion. "Participants aged between 16 - 30 will recall significantly more nouns from a list if twenty than participants aged between 55 - 70" is operationalized. Educators are interested in whether participating in after-school math tutoring can increase scores on standardized math exams. Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations, 10th ed. This other variable, which is measured and predicted to be dependent upon the IV, is therefore named the dependent variable (DV). video. In order to understand how the independent variable is used in experiments, it can be helpful to look at some different examples. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved. There can by all different types of independent variables. For the following hypotheses name the IV and the DV. In an experiment on the effects of the type of diet on weight loss, for example, researchers might look at several different types of diet. Two examples of common independent variables are gender and educational level. In this particular example the type of information is the independent variable (because it changes) and the amount of information remembered is the dependent variable (because this is being measured). Variables are given a special name that only applies to experimental investigations. The independent variable is the variable the experimenter changes or controls and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. How to Form a Hypothesis Statement for Psychology Research, Understanding Internal and External Validity, How a Wait List Control Group Is Used in an Experiment, 5 Important Steps for Conducting Psychology Experiments, Within-Subject Design Has Both Advantages and Disadvantages, Following the Steps of a Scientific Method for Research, Daily Tips for a Healthy Mind to Your Inbox. For example, we might change the type of information (e.g. Researchers are trying to determine if changes to the independent variable (studying) result in significant changes to the dependent variable (the test results). Thus independent variables act as catalysts for dependent variables. A researcher wants to determine if the color of an office has any effect on worker productivity. The independent variables in a particular experiment all depend on the hypothesis and what the experimenters are investigating. At the outset of an experiment, it is important for researchers to operationally define the independent variable. Verywell Mind uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Each type of diet that the experimenters look at would be a different level of the independent variable while weight loss would always be the dependent variable. organized or random) given to participants to see what effect this might have on the amount of information remembered. Uses. ____________________________________________________________. The key point here is that we have made it absolutely clear what we mean by the terms as The test scores vary based on the amount of studying prior to the test… The independent variable is also called the predictor variable. The independent variable is the condition that you change in an experiment. DV.......................................................…. The amount of input the workers have over their work is the independent variable in this example. If you are having trouble identifying the independent variables of an experiment, there are some questions that may help: Researchers are interested in investigating the effects of the independent variable on other variables, which are known as dependent variables (DV). Are researchers trying to identify how the variable influences another variable? 2. Ever wonder what your personality type means? Time is the independent variable that varies among employees, and the wages are calculated directly from a specific amount of time.


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